Category: Injury Prevention
Rugby Science Update 4
The Return to Sport Clearance Continuum
The purpose of this article is to explore the concept of Return To Sport (RTS) being part of an evolving continuum rather than the traditional notion that RTS is a single decision made at a discrete point in time. The authors describe a 5 phase continuum – the Return to Sport Clearance Continuum (RTSCC).
The first phase is the repair phase, where initial healing occurs post surgery. This is where swelling will be minimized, range of motion will be increased, and proper muscle activation will occur. Next will be the rehabilitation and recovery phase, where normal arthrokinematics are going to be restored. Then, the athlete will move to the reconditioning phase, where the focus will be on skill and force development, along with load volume tolerance. The athlete will then progress to the performance phase, where the athlete will transition to full team practice and competition. Finally, they will progress to the preseason/training camp phase, where they will properly be managed for the upcoming season after injury. Throughout the continuum training loads need. to be monitored on a near daily basis when possible, to avoid overloading the healing tissues.
Draovitch, P., Patel, S., Marrone, W., Grundstein, M. J., Grant, R., Virgile, A., … & Jones, K. (2022). The Return-to-Sport Clearance Continuum Is a Novel Approach Toward Return to Sport and Performance for the Professional Athlete. Arthroscopy, sports medicine, and rehabilitation, 4(1), e93-e101.
Skill Training Periodization in “Specialist” Sports Coaching
In this paper, the authors propose a skill training periodization framework for “specialist coaches” based on skill training theory. Skill Training can be divided up into coordination training, skill adaptability training and performance training.
This article is open access and free to download.
Otte, F. W., Millar, S. K., & Klatt, S. (2019). Skill training periodization in “specialist” sports coaching—an introduction of the “PoST” framework for skill development. Frontiers in Sports and Active Living, 1, 61.
Strength and conditioning in schools: a strategy to optimise health, fitness and physical activity in youths
In this editorial, the authors argue that schools are an ideal environment for mass implementation of strength and conditioning interventions to support youth development. The author recommend that schools should aim to systematically incorporate strength and conditioning and wider physical activity into year-round timetables. This could be achieved by employing qualified youth strength and conditioning practitioners, and/or educating and upskilling current staff and stakeholders.
Till, K., Bruce, A., Green, T., Morris, S. J., Boret, S., & Bishop, C. J. (2022). Strength and conditioning in schools: a strategy to optimise health, fitness and physical activity in youths. British Journal of Sports Medicine, 56(9), 479-480.
Rugby Science Update 3
A game for all shapes and sizes? Changes in anthropometric and performance measures of elite professional rugby union players 1999–2018
This study aimed to assess the longitudinal changes in mass, velocity, momentum and peak kinetic energy using two decades of standardised elite and international rugby player data. The study showed that professional players are now leaner, heavier, faster and cover more distance than ever before. When professional rugby players collide, the forces involved have also risen. The implications of these findings however are yet to be fully understood.
This article is open access and free to download on the journal’s website.
Bevan, T., Chew, S., Godsland, I., Oliver, N. S., & Hill, N. E. (2022). A game for all shapes and sizes? Changes in anthropometric and performance measures of elite professional rugby union players 1999–2018. BMJ open sport & exercise medicine, 8(1), e001235.
Poor isometric neck extension strength as a risk factor for concussion in male professional Rugby Union players
This study aimed to establish if reduced neck strength was a risk factor for concussion in professional male rugby players. The study identified a specific neck strength range associated with increased concussion rates and found that reduced neck extension strength is a risk factor for concussion in male professional rugby players.
Farley, T., Barry, E., Sylvester, R., De Medici, A., & Wilson, M. G. (2022). Poor isometric neck extension strength as a risk factor for concussion in male professional Rugby Union players. British journal of sports medicine. Online first.
Effectiveness of the Activate injury prevention exercise programme to prevent injury in schoolboy rugby union
The main aim of this study was to assess the effectiveness of Activate (a 15–20 min warm-up programme) to lower match and training injury rates (incidence and burden) in schoolboy rugby union (under-12 to under-19). A secondary aim was to examine the dose–response relationship between weekly Activate adherence and injury incidence. The study found individuals playing for teams adopting Activate had a lower match and training injury incidence when compared with those not using Activate. Individuals with high weekly Activate adherence (≥3 Activate sessions per week) had a lower match and training injury incidence than those with low adherence (<1 Activate session per week). Therefore, Activate appears effective at lowering injury risk in schoolboy rugby union, with maximum benefit when completing the programme three times per week.
Barden, C., Hancock, M. V., Stokes, K. A., Roberts, S. P., & McKay, C. D. (2022). Effectiveness of the Activate injury prevention exercise programme to prevent injury in schoolboy rugby union. British Journal of Sports Medicine. Online first.
Rugby Science Update 2
Comparison of Weightlifting, Traditional Resistance Training and Plyometrics on Strength, Power and Speed: A Systematic Review with Meta-Analysis
This review aimed to explore whether weightlifting resulted in greater improvements in measures of strength, power, speed and change of direction speed compared with traditional resistance training, plyometric training or controls. Findings from 16 studies suggested there are moderate to large benefits of weightlifting for improvements in strength, counter movement jump, squat jump and speed performance when compared with no additional training beyond sports practice or typical physical activities. Whilst improvements in strength were found to be similar following both weightlifting and traditional resistance training, weightlifting may be superior for improvements in weightlifting performance (i.e. load lifted) and counter movement jump height. Factors such as population characteristics or programme design may also influence these outcomes.
This article is open access and the full article is free to download.
Morris, S. J., Oliver, J. L., Pedley, J. S., Haff, G. G., & Lloyd, R. S. (2022). Comparison of Weightlifting, Traditional Resistance Training and Plyometrics on Strength, Power and Speed: A Systematic Review with Meta-Analysis. Sports Medicine, 1-22.
What Learning Environments Help Improve Decision-Making?
This study attempted to provide a greater understanding of coaches’ perceptions and strategies for specifically developing on-ball decision-making abilities in players. In the paper, the authors were interested in what strategies coaches believe would improve player decision-making, how they would create a learning environment to specifically train decision-making, and how this may influence the on-ball decision-making opportunities for the players.
The study found coaches are aware of the strategies which may promote decision-making opportunities for players such as the use of questioning, constraints-led pedagogy and using Playing Form rather than Training Form activities. While the data may suggest coaches are aware of potential strategies to promote player decision-making and are attempting to move away from traditional coaching approaches, the findings provide evidence to suggest that coaches still over-coach, with high amounts of instruction and a very stop-start nature to the activity. This coaching practice potentially limits the problem-solving and decision-making demands on players. The findings support researchers who indicate there is still a disconnect between intention and practice, with the application of more effective coaching methods proposed in the research still a challenge to implement for coaches.
O’Connor, D., Larkin, P., & Williams, A. M. (2017). What learning environments help improve decision-making?. Physical Education and Sport Pedagogy, 22(6), 647-660.
Characteristics of Complex Systems in Sports Injury Rehabilitation: Examples and Implications for Practice
This review applies the complex systems approach to return to sport. The paper highlights the characteristics and terminologies of complex systems, using a case of anterior cruciate ligament injury rehabilitation. Alternative forms of scientific inquiry, such as the use of computational and simulation-based techniques, are also discussed—to move the complex systems approach from the theoretical to the practical level.
This article is open access and the full article is free to download.
Yung, K. K., Ardern, C. L., Serpiello, F. R., & Robertson, S. (2022). Characteristics of complex systems in sports injury rehabilitation: examples and implications for practice. Sports Medicine-Open, 8(1), 1-15.