Category: Injury Prevention
Rugby Science Update 2
Comparison of Weightlifting, Traditional Resistance Training and Plyometrics on Strength, Power and Speed: A Systematic Review with Meta-Analysis
This review aimed to explore whether weightlifting resulted in greater improvements in measures of strength, power, speed and change of direction speed compared with traditional resistance training, plyometric training or controls. Findings from 16 studies suggested there are moderate to large benefits of weightlifting for improvements in strength, counter movement jump, squat jump and speed performance when compared with no additional training beyond sports practice or typical physical activities. Whilst improvements in strength were found to be similar following both weightlifting and traditional resistance training, weightlifting may be superior for improvements in weightlifting performance (i.e. load lifted) and counter movement jump height. Factors such as population characteristics or programme design may also influence these outcomes.
This article is open access and the full article is free to download.
Morris, S. J., Oliver, J. L., Pedley, J. S., Haff, G. G., & Lloyd, R. S. (2022). Comparison of Weightlifting, Traditional Resistance Training and Plyometrics on Strength, Power and Speed: A Systematic Review with Meta-Analysis. Sports Medicine, 1-22.
What Learning Environments Help Improve Decision-Making?
This study attempted to provide a greater understanding of coaches’ perceptions and strategies for specifically developing on-ball decision-making abilities in players. In the paper, the authors were interested in what strategies coaches believe would improve player decision-making, how they would create a learning environment to specifically train decision-making, and how this may influence the on-ball decision-making opportunities for the players.
The study found coaches are aware of the strategies which may promote decision-making opportunities for players such as the use of questioning, constraints-led pedagogy and using Playing Form rather than Training Form activities. While the data may suggest coaches are aware of potential strategies to promote player decision-making and are attempting to move away from traditional coaching approaches, the findings provide evidence to suggest that coaches still over-coach, with high amounts of instruction and a very stop-start nature to the activity. This coaching practice potentially limits the problem-solving and decision-making demands on players. The findings support researchers who indicate there is still a disconnect between intention and practice, with the application of more effective coaching methods proposed in the research still a challenge to implement for coaches.
O’Connor, D., Larkin, P., & Williams, A. M. (2017). What learning environments help improve decision-making?. Physical Education and Sport Pedagogy, 22(6), 647-660.
Characteristics of Complex Systems in Sports Injury Rehabilitation: Examples and Implications for Practice
This review applies the complex systems approach to return to sport. The paper highlights the characteristics and terminologies of complex systems, using a case of anterior cruciate ligament injury rehabilitation. Alternative forms of scientific inquiry, such as the use of computational and simulation-based techniques, are also discussed—to move the complex systems approach from the theoretical to the practical level.
This article is open access and the full article is free to download.
Yung, K. K., Ardern, C. L., Serpiello, F. R., & Robertson, S. (2022). Characteristics of complex systems in sports injury rehabilitation: examples and implications for practice. Sports Medicine-Open, 8(1), 1-15.
Rugby Science Update 1
The impact of matches and travel on rugby players’ sleep, wellness and training
The purpose of this study was to determine the influence of trans-meridian travel and matches on the sleep, wellness, and training of players from four Super Rugby teams during the 2017 Super Rugby season. Travel was associated with substantial sleep deprivation for three of the teams when overseas, which can be explained by travel fatigue, jet lag and a disruption of the normal sleep habit (sleeping in a non-familiar environment and sharing room with a team-mate). The findings of this research suggest that players in four Super Rugby players suffer reduced wellness and an overall sleep deficit when they travel overseas. As trans-meridian travel appears to affect players’ sleep, teams should implement strategies such as melatonin supplementation and light exposure to reduce the effect of jet lag. A correct sleep hygiene could also help players in catching up with the sleep loss they may experience throughout the season and following travel. As there was some evidence of substantial individual responses, teams should carefully monitor the sleep of their players with particular attention to those who sleep more than average, as they may suffer more sleep disruption.
Lo, M., Aughey, R. J., Hopkins, W. G., Gill, N., & Stewart, A. M. (2022). The impact of matches and travel on rugby players’ sleep, wellness and training. PloS one, 17(2), e0261517.
Training load, injury burden, and team success in professional rugby union: risk versus reward
The purpose of this study was to establish whether associations among training load, injury burden, and performance exist within rugby. The study found injury burden was negatively associated with performance, whereas training load measures displayed only trivial associations with performance.
West, S. W., Williams, S., Kemp, S., Eager, R., Cross, M. J., & Stokes, K. A. (2020). Training load, injury burden, and team success in professional rugby union: Risk versus reward. Journal of athletic training, 55(9), 960-966.
Physical characteristics of different professional rugby union competition levels
The purpose of this study was to evaluate whether differences in physical characteristics (running-related and collision-related) derived from microsensor technology exist between four different professional rugby union competition levels. The study found collisions per minute, Collision Load™ per minute and High Metabolic Load Efforts per minute were all higher during International Rugby and European Rugby Champions Cup match-play, when compared to PRO14 and British and Irish Cup match-play. Distance per minute and High-Speed Running distance per minute were lower during International Rugby and European Rugby Champions Cup match-play, when compared with PRO14 and British and Irish Cup match-play. Our data suggest that rugby union players require specific physical preparation for different levels of competition. In particular, players may need specific preparation for higher collision demands at higher levels of competition.
Tierney, P., Blake, C., & Delahunt, E. (2021). Physical characteristics of different professional rugby union competition levels. Journal of Science and Medicine in Sport, 24(12), 1267-1271.
Running and Patellofemoral Pain Syndrome: What makes you weak at the knees?
Patellofemoral Pain Syndrome (PFPS) is a knee condition associated with anterior knee pain when loading the knee in movements like squatting, stair climbing, running and jumping (Ferber et al., 2015). Due to its high prevalence and running becoming an increasingly common form of exercise, it is important that high quality evidence regarding treatment and preventative strategies are made accessible to the public.
Like most soft tissue injuries, PFPS is also a multifactorial condition involving structural, sensorimotor, somatosensory, psychological, and nociceptive processing changes (Powers et al., 2017). Consequently, a consensus paper was written which outlined the current evidence-based understanding of the complex aetiology of this condition. Figure 1 shows the varied levels of scientific knowledge on the proposed mechanisms of the pathophysiology in PFPS.
To understand how best to deal with PFPS we are going to look at a question posed by Ferber et al.: what is the best form of exercise when treating PFPS? According to the most recent consensus statement on treatment regarding PFPS, there is an understanding that exercise and multimodal treatment involving knee, hip and core training is the most evidence-based approach when treating PFPS (Crossley et al., 2016). However, until 2015, there had not been research into whether, in isolation, a hip and core or knee protocol is more efficient (Feber et al., 2015).
Feber et al. (2015) included 199 individuals suffering from PFPS in the USA in a randomised control trial comparing a 6-week knee protocol (Figure 3) to a 6-week hip and core protocol (Figure 2). These programs used functional exercises to progressively overload the participants throughout the 6-weeks. Both protocols produced similar statistically significant increases in maximum isometric knee extension strength (Hip/Core – 8.04% (p<0.05); Knee – 6.37% (p<0.05)) and functional capacity measured by the Anterior Knee Pain Score (Hip/Core – 12.58% (p<0.05); Knee – 12.90% (p<0.05)) post treatment . However, the hip and core protocol had a greater reduction in VAS pain scores after 3-weeks (p<0.05) even though pain scores were equal at 6 weeks. The hip and core also produced greater hip extension (Hip/Core – 11.34%; Knee – 7.13%; p<0.05) and abduction (Hip/Core – 11.46%; Knee – 8.21%; p<0.05) maximal isometric strength post treatment (Feber et al., 2015). Both of these variables are shown to be possible risk factors for PFPS (Figure 1). Therefore, the hip and core protocol may have a greater efficiency when treating PFPS as it targets more risk factors than the knee protocol.
Therefore, this hip and core exercise protocol, which is time efficient and uses a shotgun approach against the risk factors relating to PFPS, may be a much sort after injury prevention program for runners wanting to avoid future anterior knee pain.
Crossley, K. M. et al. (2016) ‘2016 Patellofemoral pain consensus statement from the 4th International Patellofemoral Pain Research Retreat, Manchester. Part 2: Recommended physical interventions (exercise, taping, bracing, foot orthoses and combined interventions)’, British Journal of Sports Medicine, 50(14), pp. 844–852. doi: 10.1136/bjsports-2016-096268.
Ferber, R. et al. (2015) ‘Strengthening of the hip and core versus knee muscles for the treatment of patellofemoral pain: A multicenter randomized controlled trial’, Journal of Athletic Training, 50(4), pp. 366–377. doi: 10.4085/1062-6050-49.3.70.
Powers, C. M. et al. (2017) ‘Evidence-based framework for a pathomechanical model of patellofemoral pain: 2017 patellofemoral pain consensus statement from the 4th International Patellofemoral Pain Research Retreat, Manchester, UK: Part 3’, British Journal of Sports Medicine, 51(24), pp. 1713–1723. doi: 10.1136/bjsports-2017-098717.